Authors intending to submit articles for publication in Flora Mediterranea or Bocconea are requested to adhere to the following rules on manuscript preparation. Submit manuscripts to: Foundation Pro Herbario MEditerraneo, via Lincoln 6, I-90133 Palermo, Italy. E-mail:

Manuscripts will be sent for review to experts, and authors may be asked to modify or rewrite their manuscripts totally or in part in order to accommodate the reviewers’ suggestions and to conform with the requirements of Flora Mediterranea. Contributors tacitly agree to cede all authors’ rights to the publishers of Flora Mediterranea. This transfer becomes effective from the moment when the author receives confirmation of the acceptance of the manuscript for publication.


Flora Mediterranea publishes papers dealing with plant geography, floristics and systematic botany in its widest sense relating to Mediterranean plants of all groups, whether living or fossil. The emphasis is on articles that exceed national limits in coverage or by their general interest. Bocconea publishes monographies and other major works on Mediterranean botanical subjects. The accepted languages are English and French.


Type of Manuscripts

Based on their length and content, three categories of papers are considered:

1) Articles

Research articles are significant papers of six or more printed pages reporting original research. Monographs (60 or more pages) are individually issued in the journal Bocconea.

2) Correspondences

Manuscripts of one to six printed pages concerning:

-1. Opinions and views on current issues of interests to botanists.

-2. Commentaries on or additions/corrections to papers previously published.

-3. Taxonomic/nomenclatural/distributive notes.

-4. Book reviews meant to introduce readers to new or noteworthy botanical works (interested authors/publishers are advised to contact the editor before submitting books for review; editors then prepare the book review or invite colleagues to write the review; unsolicited reviews are not usually published).

-5. Short papers converted from manuscripts submitted as research articles but too short to qualify as such.

These short contributions should generally have no more than 20 references (exceptions may be considered), and the total length should not exceed 4 printed pages. A short abstract (no more than 100 words) and a list of key words are needed; major headings (Introduction, Material and Methods, etc.) are optional, except for new taxon headings and References.

3) Obituaries of botanists

These contributions should generally consist of no more than 10 printed pages (exceptions may be considered). Neither an abstract nor a list of key words is needed; major headings (Introduction, Material and Methods, etc.) should not be used, except for new taxon headings and References.

File format

Submitting a manuscript in electronic format by e-mail. Only if a usable text file can be provided the manuscript will be considered for publication.

Preparation of manuscripts

Double-space all material, including abstract, footnotes, and references. Provide margins of at least 3 cm on all sides of the page. Number each page consecutively. Titles of articles as well as main sub-headings should be typed cap/lower case flush left on the page (not centred). Secondary sub-headings are to be indented, italicized, and followed by a period and a dash, with subsequent text running on. Indent all paragraphs except for formal presentation of accepted taxa which should start flush on the left-hand margin, with the subsequent lines indented. No footnotes will normally be allowed. The authors address, which must be given in full, must be placed at the end of the manuscript. All scientific names should be italicized. Do not divide words at the end of lines. Use "&" between double authors, both in authors citations for scientific plant names and when citing literature, and use "& al." for multiple (three or more) co-authors or co-editors except in the "References" section where all names should be given. A space must always follow after a period, colon, semicolon, or comma (except within numerals and standard abbreviations such as e.g., i.e. and i.a.): "Brown, A. J." not "Brown, A.J.": "32: 120-130" not "32:120-130"; and between numerals and units of measures: "2 mm", not "2mm". Author abbreviations should follow the standard of Brummitt & Powell, Authors of plant names (Kew 1992) - but spell out authors names in full rather than abbreviating them by just 1 or 2 letters.

Figures and tabular material

Figures should be designed to fit the full page width after reduction (12.8 cm) and including caption they may occupy up to the full page length (19.1 cm). It is mandatory that the scale be included on the illustration itself, not in the caption. Figures should be mounted separately on stiff white board. All illustrations must be numbered consecutively using Arabic numerals. They should be cited "Fig. 1" or "Figs. 1-4" in sequential order. Label each illustration with the following information: authors name, figure number, and an indication of which edge is the top. The captions should be at the end of the manuscript, typed in separate paragraphs but not on separate pages. Do not mount line illustrations (line drawings, maps, graphs, and diagrams) and half-tone photographs on the same plate. Plates comprising several figures or photographs should have drawn-in letters or numbers for reference. Photographs, especially those of herbarium specimens, must be of exceptional quality, good contrast, and submitted as close to Flora Mediterranea and Bocconea page size as possible. Photocopies intended as original illustrations are not acceptable. Tables should also be separate at the end of the manuscript and not incorporated into the text. Tables must have an appropriate heading and must bear consecutive Arabic numerals. They should be cited "Table 1", etc. All tables must be suitable for reduction to the page size of Flora Mediterranea and Bocconea. Tables will be type-set (not reproduced photographically) and must be submitted in electronic format along with the text. Keep them simple, and bear in mind readability after reduction to page size.


Only cite articles or books already published or in press, not papers "in preparation". Full references must be given, including city of publication (but not the publisher) for books. Each reference in the text must also be listed under "References" and vice versa. Examples of correct citation:

Danin, A. 1983: Desert vegetation of Israel and Sinai. – Jerusalem.

Di Martino, A. & Raimondo, F. M. 1979: Biological and chorological survey of the Sicilian flora. – Webbia 34: 309-335.

Edris, A. E. 2007: Pharmaceutical and therapeutic potentials of essential oils and their individual volatile constituents: a review. – Phytother. Res. 21(4): 308-323.

Kollmann, F. 1984: Allium. – Pp. 98-211 in: Davis, P. H. (ed.), Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean islands, 8.  – Edinburgh.
–– 1985: The genus
Allium in Israel. – Rotem 15.

Loon, J. C. van, 1987: A cytotaxonomical atlas of the Balkan flora. – Berlin & Stuttgart.

Moore, D. M. (ed.) 1982: Flora Europaea check-list and chromosome index. – Cambridge.

Pajar, S. & Molina, A. 1989: Teucrium xscorolepis, nuevo hibrido de la sect. Scorodonia. – Fontqueria 27: 163-164.

Pignatti, S. 1982: Flora d’Italia, 1.  – Bologna.

Privitera, M. 1990: Sulla presenza di Entosthodon pallescens Jur. var. mitratus Cas. Gil,  nuovo reperto per l’Italia. – Giorn. Bot. Ital. 124: 110.

–– & Lo Giudice, R. 1980: Segnalazione di alcuni muschi nuovi per la Sicilia. – Boll. Accad. Gioenia Sci. Nat. Catania, ser. 4, 14(1): 15-18.

Schreber, J. C. D. von, 1773: Plantae verticillatae unilabiatae – Erlangen.

Singh, O., Khanam, Z., Misra, N. & Srivastava, M. K. 2011: Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.): an overview. – Pharmacogn. Rev. 5(9): 82-95. 7847.79103.

Strid, A. & Franz, R. 1981: Reports. [In Love, A. (ed.), IOPB chromosome number reports LXXIII]. – Taxon 30: 829-842.

Never type names of authors in capital letters or small capitals, either in "References" or in the text. Abbreviated titles (as of journals) should have all words capitalized, but titles quoted in full (e.g. of books) should have only those words capitalized for which the rules of ortography recognize it (proper names in English, nouns in German, etc.). Abbreviations of journal names must be consistent; they must follow the standard of Botanico-Periodicum-Huntianum and its Supplement (Pittsburgh 1968-1991) are to be formed by analogy when not listed there.

Specimens cited

The following format is to be used: Country and/or political subdivision: Locality, coordinates, habitat, altitude, date, collector(s) and number (herbarium codes).


Authors will receive proofs once. They are expected to process them immediately and return them by e-mail. Authors who anticipate being absent are urged to leave forwarding orders or to give notice of temporary addresses (with dates). When more than one author is concerned, proofs will be sent to the first named author unless the contrary has been specified. Corrections not returned within two weeks cannot usually be taken into consideration. All but very minor author corrections will be billed at cost.

Page charges

Page charges (10 € per page for OPTIMA members and 15 € per page for non members) are billed for each printed page. Sending herbarium specimens as gift to the Herbarium Mediterraneum Panormitanum (PAL) authors will not have any page charges. Reprints can be ordered when the corrected proof is returned; they will be billed at cost.


Copyright Notice

License and Copyright Agreement

In submitting the manuscript to any of Foundation pro Herbarium Mediterraneum's journals, the authors certify that: - They are authorized by their co-authors to enter into these arrangements;

- The work described has not been published before (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, review or thesis), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication has been approved by all the author(s) and by the responsible authorities;

– tacitly or explicitly – of the institutes where the work has been carried out;

- They secure the right to reproduce any material that has already been published or copyrighted elsewhere;

- They agree to the following license and copyright agreement:



-Copyright on any article is retained by the author(s). Regarding copyright transfers please see below;

-Authors grant Foundation pro Herbarium Mediterraneum a license to publish the article and identify itself as the original publisher;

-Authors grant Foundation pro Herbarium Mediterraneum commercial rights to produce hardcopy volumes of the journal for sale to libraries and individuals;

-Authors grant any third party the right to use the article freely as long as its original authors and citation details are identified;

-The article and any associated published material is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0).


Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0)

Anyone is free:

-to Share, to copy, distribute and transmit the work;

-to Remix, - to adapt the work Under the following conditions:



The original authors must be given credit.

-For any reuse or distribution, it must be made clear to others what the license terms of this work are.

-Any of these conditions can be waived if the copyright holders give permission.

-Nothing in this license impairs or restricts the author's moral rights.

-The full legal code of this license.


Copyright Transfers

Any usage rights are regulated through the Creative Commons License. As Foundation pro Herbarium Mediterraneum is using the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), anyone (the author, his/her institution/company, the publisher, as well as the public) is free to copy, distribute, transmit, and adapt the work as long as the original author is credited (see above). Therefore, specific usage rights cannot be reserved by the author or his/her institution/company, and the publisher cannot include a statement "all rights reserved" in any published paper.





Guide to Authors